Fungi Fridays: Amanita phalloides*

[690 words, 3-5 min read]

The Amanita genus is famed for its deadly mushrooms. This genus can be trouble, but there are a few edible species in it. Amanita caesarea (Caesar’s Mushroom) is a highly regarded edible, and the species Amanita hemibapha, commonly known as the Half-dyed Slender Caesar, is edible as well.

I’m thinking the depicted pale mushrooms are Amanita phalloides, commonly known as Death Caps. I didn’t get the best look at these for identification purposes, but they were beautiful from afar! Many Amanita phalloides images depict fruit with greener caps than these two depicted mushrooms, but their distinctive volvas and pale coloration are red flags to me, and they’re just too immature to know what color they’ll turn.

1262017_amanitamuscaria2_800x447

Amanita muscaria, commonly known as the Fly Agaric

The beautiful (but toxic) Amanita muscaria, commonly known as Fly Agaric, is in the same genus as the phalloides. Muscaria has been traditionally used as an insecticide and sprinkled in milk to attract unsuspecting flies. It also has religious significance in Siberian culture due to hallucinogenic properties caused by ibotenic acid, muscimol, etc. and many cultures reportedly use it as an intoxicant. Apparently, humans have found many uses for this ‘shroom!

As for reported toxicity, North American deaths from Amanita muscaria compounds have been documented as recently as 2012 though—which means people are safest steering clear of this mushroom.

1262017_amanitaphalloides2_800x433

Likely Amanita phalloides, the Death Cap. Related to muscaria

This is as good a time as any to consider the possibility of poisonings, as they *are* a real danger in foraging. David Fischer of Americanmushrooms.com has a logical view on the practice, and below are some of his words concerning the hallmarks of intelligent foraging, how average people regularly avoid poisonings and who qualifies as an “expert”:

“Millions of North Americans pick and eat wild mushrooms every year, without as much as a belly ache.

Are they “experts”? Yes! At least, they are experts on the edible wild mushrooms they know. Either their parents or grandparents taught them how to identify morels, or puffballs, or meadow mushrooms, or they have a good field guide and they read it… or both.

No one with a reasonable understanding of the importance of properly identifying mushrooms—with a serious awareness that some species are fatally toxic—falls victim to the Death Cap. The folks who eat Death Caps do not use field guides: they just pick the damned things and eat them. No trip to the library. No reading. No spore prints. No idea what a “partial veil” is or what “gill attachment” means.

So… Is it really dangerous to eat wild mushrooms?

How dangerous is it to drive a car? If you’re drunk or careless, it is VERY dangerous; if you’re sensible and pay attention, it is reasonably safe.

1262017_amanitamuscaria_800x455

Amanita muscaria, related to the phalloides

Consider this: Would you pick and eat an unfamiliar berry simply because it “looked good”? Of course not. Finding, identifying, preparing, and eating wild mushrooms can be a delightful pasttime—IF it is done intelligently.

Otherwise, it is a terrible “accident” waiting to happen.”

I’m so grateful for all the mushroom knowledge made available thanks to the diligent study and reporting of mycologists around the world. They make it possible to forage intelligently.

 

edit 2/3/17: I replaced all instances of “Destroying Angel” with “Death Cap”. “Destroying Angel” fungi are also poisonous, but this colloquial term usually refers to A. bisporigera, A. virosa and A. magnivelaris, NOT A. phalloides. There is a European (spring destroying angel) A. verna which resembles A. phalloides. A HUGE thanks to 1left for bringing this to my attention, whose blog is a wonderland of knowledge about wildcraft and foraging. You should check it out.

🍄🍄🍄

Genus: Amanita

Species: phalloides

Edibility: inedible – highly toxic

Sources:

https://botit.botany.wisc.edu/toms_fungi/mar2002.html

http://americanmushrooms.com/deathcap.htm

http://www.bayareamushrooms.org/education/further_reflections_amanita_muscaria.html

*Disclaimer: This site is provided for informational purposes only. Taylor assumes no responsibility or liability for any consequences of readers actions. Though every reasonable effort is made to present current and accurate information, identifications may be incorrect (Taylor *is* a novice) – but that’s where community input helps! Please, feel free to correct misinformation you find (or just add your two cents) in the comments!
Happy foraging!

Save

Immature California Golden chanterelle

(Forageworthy) Fungi Flashback Fridays: Cantharellus californicus*

[680 words, 3-5 min read]

Some call them the mud puppy or oak chanterelle, while others call this choice edible the California Golden chanterelle. Whatever they’re called colloquially, I found them for the first time a few months ago! Chanterelles are known for their earthy taste and apricot-tinged scent, and they can be spied in the oaky woodlands of coastal California. Foragers have found soil rich with this edible gold as far north as Mendocino county and as far south as San Diego county.

California Golden chanterelle in my right hand

You can see why some call them “mud puppies”…

But the new fungi fanatic may not have much practice identifying mushrooms…so how does a forager know she’s hit the jackpot?  There is one well-known and poisonous lookalike: the reportedly bioluminescent Jack O’ Lantern (the common species in the western U.S. is Omphalotus olivascens, while olearius is in Europe). The way that I make sure chanterelles aren’t actually fool’s gold is by comparing gill structures. See a comparison between Omphalotus olivascens and Cantharellus californicus below:

Comparison between the reproductive surfaces of Omphalotus olivascens/Cantharellus californicus

Omphalotus olivascens (left)/Cantharellus californicus (right)

See how the Jack O’ Lantern (left) has deep, broad folds of gills, while the California Golden chanterelle has forked, gill-like ridges that are much shallower? Additionally, I have never seen chanterelles in clusters at bases of trees. I have only seen single fruitings of chanterelles growing in fairy rings on hilly land. I found them amongst leafy litter below a hilltop of Live Oak trees.

Jack O' Lantern mushroom

Omphalotus olivascens (Jack O’ Lantern)

A note on the reported bioluminescence of the Jack O’ Lantern: bioluminescence would be a solid way to confirm whether or not you’ve found fool’s gold or the real thing, as there are zero reports of glowing Cantharellus specimens. But Michael Kuo of Mushroomexpert.com reports there is no validity to the claim that Omphalotus olivascens and related fungi glow in the dark. Perhaps one evening I’ll pass a glowing Jack O’ Lantern in a dark forest…that’d be awesome, but I won’t hold my breath after reading Kuo’s account!

pan of shredded California Golden chanterelles

Ready for stewing!

Anyway, chanterelles aren’t my favorite fungi to forage (I like oysters and blewits a lot more, read more about oysters here), but they’re more than edible. In fact, California Golden chanterelles are the most substantial, meaty mushroom I’ve ever tried. They’d probably be great for pickling, if you’re into that.

When I cooked them, I first stewed the chanterelles to increase palatability/edibility. I was surprised at how fibrous and meaty this mushroom is, and I knew I needed to increase the shroom’s tenderness if I hoped to make a palatable dinner.

shredded chanterelles stewing in a pan

Stewing chanterelles

Next, I added them to a base of sautéed onions, garlic and herbs, and gravied them heartily. Then I served them over rice with peas 😋

plate of gravied chanterelle mushrooms over rice with peas

*Looks* just like chicken…but doesn’t taste like it…texture reminded me of cooked bamboo. Flavor wasn’t as distinctive to me as other edible mushrooms.

There are apparently over 500 scientific names applied to the genus Cantharellus, but less than 100 of them are considered scientifically valid. And all of them are edible (as far as I’ve seen in my research), so you are likely to have some species of forageworthy Cantharellus near you.

What Cantharellus species have you identified? Or, have you found mushrooms you *think* are in this genus, but can’t identify? Share your findings in the comments!

The next (Forageworthy) Fungi Flashback Friday will see a post on blewits. I’m fascinated with them right now, and they’re absolutely *amazing* when roasted. Thanks for reading, and see you next time!

🍄🍄🍄

Genus:  Cantharellus

Species: californicus

Edibility: choice (though not my jam)

Scaly chanterelle specimens at the MSSF

Turbinellus floccosus a.k.a. the Wooly chanterelle or Scaly chanterelle; vase-shaped like the chanterelle but part of the Gomphus genus

 

References:

http://www.davidarora.com/uploads/arora_dunham_chanterelles.pdf

http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/species/Omphalotus_olivascens.html

http://www.bayareamushrooms.org/mushroommonth/chanterelle.html

http://www.mushroomexpert.com/omphalotus_olearius.html

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cantharellus

 

*Disclaimer: This site is provided for informational purposes only. Taylor assumes no responsibility or liability for any consequences of readers actions. Though every reasonable effort is made to present current and accurate information, identifications may be incorrect (Taylor is a novice) – but that’s where community input helps! Please, feel free to correct misinformation you find (or just add your two cents) in the comments!

Happy foraging!

Morel mushroom

🍄 Fun(gi) at the MSSF Fungus Fair!🍄

Driving across the bridge from the East Bay to San Francisco

On the way to MSSF!

Sam and I went to the Mycological Society of San Francisco Fungus Fair a few weekends ago, and it was nothing short of AWESOME! There’s nothing like learning about the largest branch in the Tree of Life with kindred souls!

There were two main rooms: upon arrival, you’re guided through the entryway by scents of tasty mushroom soup 🍲 and this savory serving foyer opened up to a huge room filled with mushroom fanatics performing fungi arts and crafts (there are so many ways to use mushrooms): A chef demonstrating his mushroom recipe, people dipping white scarves into rainbows of fungi dyes, excited children building multitudes of mushroom housesthen we came to the next room. The next room. Ugh. So much mushroomin’ it wasn’t allowed.

MSSF Fungus Fair life-sized diorama of a forest floor covered in leaf litter and fungi

Life-sized diorama of a forest floor you might encounter on a foray; it took up the center of the room.

There was so much information and so many specimens there that filled gaps of my fungi knowledge and will be super-useful in my fungi-related posts (definitely planning one re: California Chanterelles now). Accessing so much reliable information about fungi was invaluable, so I’ll be locating and attending fungi fairs as often as I can manage now.

12192016_mssf_photocards

I also got these while at the fungus fair:

Wineforest Wild Foods brand dried Candy Cap mushrooms

Ever heard of candy cap mushrooms? Their binomial name is Lactarius rubidus, and I made candied yams with them! I subbed the candy caps in place of vanilla, and the yams came out with distinctive maple flavor. Contrary to what one might assume, the yams DID NOT taste like mushrooms. They tasted like candied yams with maple syrup…seasoning, if that makes sense…delicious! These are even good used in a roast duck or chicken recipe; they add maple flavor and distinguish your glazes, yum 😋 And  I only need to use one or two mushrooms per serving of any given dish. A little goes a long way!

What fungus fairs (or any sort of nature-themed fair) have you attended? Let me know in the comment section below 🙂

I can’t recommend attending the MSSF Fungus Fair enough, and you should definitely check it out if you live by San Francisco. I can’t wait for next year’s fair!

Fungi Fridays: Unknown*

P1010720.JPG

Unsure about the ID of these, and all my research on fungi foraging warns against picking any little brown mushrooms (called LBMs). Nice to look at, regularly not so nice to eat 🍴 the little brown ones are commonly difficult to ID and land many a brave soul in the hospital. They’re a huge reason why many adults tell children all mushrooms are poisonous (when it’s not nearly that simple, but I get it – better safe than sorry!). It’s possible they’re edible, but not likely enough to chance it without further info. I’m thinking they might be mycena? I have no clue though ><

🍄🍄🍄

Genus: Unknown

Species: Unknown

Edibility: Unknown

Disclaimer: This site is provided for informational purposes only. Taylor assumes no responsibility or liability for any consequences of readers actions. Though every reasonable effort is made to present current and accurate information, identifications may be incorrect (Taylor is a novice) – but that’s where community input helps! Please, feel free to correct misinformation you find (or just add your two cents) in the comments!
Happy foraging!

Fungi Fridays: Bear Bread mushroom*

112016-tjdevarie-fungifridays-ganodermaapplanatum-site

Here’s an Artist’s Conk (less commonly known as Bear Bread) fungus Sam crossed a river to cut down – he’s a big fan of Samwise Gamgee from LOTR, and I happen to be as well – sorry Frodo – so Teamwise was born!

The Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum) is a bracket fungus that grows within the wood of living and dead trees. It is a saprobic wood-decay fungus (meaning it colonizes rotting wood and dead organic matter), and it is quite inedible. But, though I can’t imagine the hungry forager who would deem this fungus edible, this fungus is also called “Bear Bread” for the obvious reasons.

Sam took a big dunk in the river to get this fungus too :O I recorded him making the trip across, and I’ll likely post videos on my Instagram of his trials and tribulations (thanks again Samwise!)

🍄🍄🍄

Genus: Ganoderma

Species: applanatum

Edibility: inedible

 

Disclaimer: This site is provided for informational purposes only. Taylor assumes no responsibility or liability for any consequences of readers actions. Though every reasonable effort is made to present current and accurate information, identifications may be incorrect (Taylor is a novice) – but that’s where community input helps! Please, feel free to correct misinformation you find (or just add your two cents) in the comments!
Happy foraging!

 

Save

Save

Fungi Fridays: Turkey Tail mushroom*

TurkeyTailLogCloseUp.jpg

Trametes versicolor

(NOTE: I know today is Saturday – but the post didn’t publish yesterday as scheduled for some reason 😦 wonder why…got some sleuthing to do!)

Nothing like the famed bird so fondly consumed on Turkey Day, these ‘shrooms are in the polypore family. I’ve seen some polypore species cooked (@mallorylodonnell has great fungi cooking pics on Instagram, I love her feed) but they aren’t considered “choice.” That means lazy cookers should steer clear of bracket fungi, because it takes some work to tease the flavor outta these babies (ONLY cook the tender edges, the closer to the base you get the woodier your meal will be! And only cook YOUNGEST bracket ‘shrooms you find).

🍄🍄🍄

Genus:  Trametes

Species: versicolor

Edibility: Edible with work, not choice

 

*Disclaimer: This site is provided for informational purposes only. Taylor assumes no responsibility or liability for any consequences of readers’ actions. Though every reasonable effort is made to present current and accurate information, identifications may be incorrect (Taylor is an amateur) – but that’s where community input helps! Please, feel free to correct misinformation you find (or just add your two cents) in the comments!
Happy foraging!

Save

Closeup of Cannabis female plant in flowering phase.

Cannabis for Grandma? Studies Show Cannabis Prevents Dementia and More

Cannabis obviously has proven medical benefits – the U.S. Govt. made that clear when they issued Patent No. 6630507 to legally protect this substance. So, how can it remain on the list of most tightly controlled substances in the country?  Isn’t this unfair?

Visit souldoctors.com to read more about current medical research on this flower and see why CNN’s Dr. Sanjay Gupta believes this life-saving medicine should be rescheduled.